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In the early 1990s, sharp contrasts were apparent between the consolidated Louisville and Charlotte school systems compared to the non-consolidated ones in the Richmond and Chattanooga areas. Note, for instance, that Map 6 indicates that schools were racially balanced even in Charlotte-Mecklenburg and Louisville-Jefferson County’s highly segregated neighborhoods. But in the other two metros—Richmond and Chattanooga (pre-merger)—many students attended racially isolated segregated elementary schools surrounded by intensely segregated neighborhoods. The presence of urban-suburban district boundaries also meant that the vast majority of these segregated schools and neighborhoods were located within Richmond and Chattanooga’s central city school systems.

Source: NCES Common Core of Data, 1992–93, 1999–2000, and 2009–10.

Creation Date


Is Part Of

VCU Mapping Files to Accompany When the Fences Come Down: Twenty-First-Century Lessons from Metropolitan School Desegregation


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Date of Submission

March 2016