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Journal/Book/Conference Title

Preventive Medicine Reports



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Funded in part by the VCU Libraries Open Access Publishing Fund.

Date of Submission

October 2019


Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are associated with a myriad of negative health effects for both mother and child. However, less is known regarding social determinants for SHS exposure, which may differ from those of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP). To identify social determinants for SHS exposure only, MSDP only, and MSDP and SHS exposure, data were obtained from all pregnant women (18–54 years; N = 726) in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2014–2015). Multiple logistic regressions were conducted using SAS 9.4. Smoke exposure during pregnancy was common; 23.0% reported SHS exposure only, 6.1% reported MSDP only, and 11.8% reported both SHS exposure and MSDP. Results demonstrate that relationships between smoke exposure during pregnancy and social determinants vary by type of exposure. Women at risk for any smoke exposure during pregnancy include those who are unmarried and allow the use of combustible tobacco products within the home. Those who are at higher risk for SHS exposure include those who are younger in age, and those who are earlier in their pregnancy. Those who are at higher risk for maternal smoking include those with fair/poor mental health status and those who believe that others' view tobacco use more positively. These results suggest the need for implementing more comprehensive policies that promote smoke-free environments. Implementing these strategies have the potential to improve maternal and fetal health outcomes associated with tobacco smoke exposure.


© 2018 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Is Part Of

VCU Healthcare Policy and Research Publications