Document Type

Book Chapter

Original Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

Migrants Against Slavery: Virginians and the Nation

First Page


Last Page



From Migrants Against Slavery: Virginians and the Nation, by Philip J. Schwarz.

Used by permission of the University of Virginia Press.

Date of Submission

September 2014


From the introduction, "The stories in this book show that complete avoidance of slavery was impossible because of the power of Virginian slaveholders and because of the residues of slavery in the Midwest and elsewhere in the North. Because of these factors, people who left Virginia to avoid slavery developed diverse tactics and followed markedly different routes."

Introduction includes historical data tables: Virginia-born African-Americans in northern cities, 1850 and 1860; Free Virginia-born people living in states outside Virginia, 1850 and 1860; Ratio of free expatriates to their native eastern states' free population, 1850 and 1860; Distribution of expatriates from South Atlantic and border states, 1850 and 1860


Copyright © 2001 Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia

Recommended Citation

Schwarz, Philip. "Introduction" In Migrants Against Slavery: Virginians and the Nation. University of Virginia Press, 2001, Available from VCU Scholars Compass,

Is Part Of

VCU History Publications