•  
  •  
 

Keywords

Higher Education, widening participation, risk, criminal conviction

Abstract

It is widely accepted that individuals with criminal convictions experience multiple disadvantage and deprivation, and, as a result, are considered least likely to progress to higher education (Unlock, 2018). The risk-adverse nature of higher education application processes further compound such disadvantage, even though there is no evidence to suggest that screening for criminal convictions increase campus safety (Centre for Community Alternatives, 2010). Drawing upon ethnographic data, the discussion critically reflects upon the development of one situated Learning Together initiative based within a University in the north-west of England. In doing so, the discussion highlights a series of emerging opportunities and competing contradictions that span over three key developmental areas: creation, progress and maintenance. We anticipate that the findings will go some way in opening up a wider debate about the sustainability of initiatives that seek to create dynamic educational partnerships between the higher education sector and criminal justice system more broadly.

Author Bio

Helena Gosling is Senior Lecturer in Criminal Justice at Liverpool John Moore’s University. She has a particular interest in alternative responses to lawbreaking and those who break the law. Helena has published in a number of leading journals such as Criminology and Criminal Justice, Critical Social Policy and the International Journal of Crime, Justice and Social Democracy.

Lol Burke is professor in Criminal Justice at Liverpool John Moore’s University and specialises in the area of probation research, policy and practice. He has an extensive publication record in probation policy and practice related areas. He was editor of the Probation Journal from 2007 – 2016 and is on the editorial board of the European Journal of Probation.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

References

Annells, M. (1996). Grounded theory method: Philosophical perspectives, paradigms of inquiry and postmodernism. Qualitative Health Research, 6(3), 379–393. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973239600600306

Armstrong, C. (2008, June). What you need to know about widening participation [Careers advice]. Retrieved from https://www.jobs.ac.uk/careers-advice/working-in-higher-education/1146/what-you-need-to-know-about-widening-participation

Asher, S. R., & Weeks, M. S., (2014). Loneliness and belonging in the college years. In R. J. Coplan and J. C. Bowker (Eds.), The handbook of solitude: Psychological perspectives on social isolation, social withdrawal and being alone (1st ed.) (pp. 283-301). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Atkinson, P. & Hammersley, M. (1994). Ethnography and participant observation. In: N.K. Denzin, K. and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 248-261). London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.

Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays (Michael Holquist, Trans. & Eds., Caryl Emerson, Trans.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Bandy, J. (2018). What is service learning or community engagement? [Teaching guide]. Retrieved from University of Vanderbilt, Centre for Teaching website: https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/teaching-through-community-engagement/

Barnes, D. (1996). An analysis of the grounded theory method and the concept of culture. Qualitative Health Research. 6(3), 429–441. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973239600600309

Beghetto, R. (2017, October). Inviting uncertainty into the classroom. Educational Leadership, 75(2). Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/oct17/vol75/num02/Inviting-Uncertainty-into-the-Classroom.aspx

Beghetto, R. (2016). Big wins, small steps: How to lead for and with creativity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Bhattacharya, D., Kanaya, S., and Stevens, M. (2013, January). Are university admissions academically fair? Skills, Knowledge & Organisational Performance, (Research paper no.115) Retrieved from University of Oxford, ESRC Centre on Skills, Knowledge & Organisational Performance website: http://www.skope.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/WP115.pdf

Biggs, J. & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th Ed.). Berkshire, United Kingdom: Open University Press

Bruner, E., M. (1993). The ethnographic self and the personal self. In P. Benson (ed.), Anthropology and Literature (pp. 1-26). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press

Centre for Community Alternatives (2010). The Use of Criminal History Records in College Admissions: Reconsidered [Survey report]. Retrieved from http://www.communityalternatives.org/pdf/Reconsidered-criminal-hist-recs-in-college-admissions.pdf

Champion, N. and Noble, J. (2016). What is prison education for? A theory of change exploring the value of learning in prisons. Prison Education Trust’s Prison Learning Alliance. Retrieved from http://www.prisonerseducation.org.uk/resources/what-is-prison-education-for-a-theory-of-change-exploring-the-valueof-learning-in-prison

Charmez, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.

Clifford, M. M. (1991). Risk taking: Theoretical, empirical, and educational considerations. Educational Psychologist, 26 (3-4), 263-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2603&4_4

Cook-Sather, A. & Felten, P. (2017). Where student engagement meets faculty development: how student-faculty pedagogical partnerships fosters a sense of belonging. Student Engagement in Higher Education Journal, 1(2),. 03-11. Retrieved from https://journals.studentengagement.org.uk/index.php/raise/article/view/cook

Cook-Sather, A. and Felten, P. (2017). Ethics of academic leadership: Guiding learning and teaching. In F. Su, & M. Wood (Eds.), Cosmopolitan perspectives on academic leadership in Higher Education (pp.175–191). London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Academic.

Cook-Sather, A. and Porte, O . (2017) Reviving humanity: Grasping within and beyond our research. Journal of Education Innovation, Partnership and Change, 3 (1), 299-302. Retrieved from https://journals.studentengagement.org.uk/index.php/studentchangeagents/article/view/638

Dey, I. (1999). Grounding grounded theory: Guidelines for qualitative inquiry. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Devlin, M. (2011). Bridging the socio-cultural incongruity: conceptualising the success of students from low socio-economic status backgrounds in Australian higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 1–11. Advanced online publication http://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.613991

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York, NY: Free Press

Egan, T. (2002). Grounded theory research and theory building. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 4(3), 277-295. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422302043004

Fetterman, D. M. (1998). Ethnography: Step by step (2nd Ed.). London: Sage Publications limited

Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experience: An integrated approach to designing college courses (1st Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gosling, H. J. (2017). Creating and developing inclusive learning environments beyond the prison gate. In S. Fletcher & H. White (Eds.), Emerging voices: Critical social research by European group postgraduate and early career researchers (pp. 83-89). London, United Kingdom: EG Press

Gray, D. (2009). Doing research in the real world (2nd Ed.). London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications Limited.

Hammersley, M. (1990). Reading ethnographic research: A critical guide. London, United Kingdom: Longmans

Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography. Principles in Practice (2nd Ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge

Hart, A. W., Sorensen, N. B., and Naylor, K. (2010). Learning to lead: Reflective practice in preservice education. In F. Wendel (Ed.), Leadership in the profession (pp. 5-22). University Park, PA: University Council for Educational Administration.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement (1St Ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons (2014, September). Resettlement provision for adult offenders: Accommodation and education, training and employment. A joint thematic review by HM Inspectorate of Prisons, HM Inspectorate of Probation and Ofsted. Retieved from https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/cjji/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/Resettlement-thematic-for-print-Sept-2014.pdf

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The State of Cooperative Learning in Postsecondary and Professional Settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 15–29.

Kahu, E., & Nelson, K. (2017). Student engagement in the educational interface: understanding the mechanisms of student success. Higher Education Research and Development. 37(1), 58–71.

Kent State University (2018). Statistical and qualitative data analysis [Software: about NVivo]. Retrieved from https://libguides.library.kent.edu/statconsulting/NVivo

Koh, E., Yeo, J., & Hung, D. (2015). Pushing boundaries, taking risks. Learning: Research and Practice, 1(2). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23735082.2015.1081318

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

LeCompte, M., & Goetz, J. (1982). Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 31–60.

Lee, H. S., & Anderson, J. R. (2013). Student learning: What has instruction got to do with it? Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 445–469

Lett, J. (1990). Emics and etics: Notes on the epistemology of Anthropology. In T.N. Headland, K.L. Pike, & M. Harris, M. (eds.), Frontiers of Anthropology: Vol. 7. Emics and etics: The insider/outsider debate. New York, NY: Sage Publications.

Lyng, S. (2005). The sociology of risk taking. New York, NY; Routledge

Mann, S. J. (2001). Alternative perspectives on the student experience: Alienation and engagement. Studies in Higher Education, 26(1), 7–19.

Maruna, S. and Farrall, S. (2004). Desistance from crime: A theoretical reformulation. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 43, 171–94.

Millis, B. J. (2010). Cooperative learning in higher education: Across the disciplines, across the academy. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Millis, B. J. & Cottell, P. G. (1998). Cooperative learning for higher education faculty. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.

Ministry of Justice (2018, May 24). Education and employment strategy 2018 [Policy paper]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/education-and-employment-strategy-2018

National Center for Educational Restructuring and Inclusion (1995). National study on inclusion: Overview and summary report. New York, NY: City University of New York

Nevin, A. I., Thousand, J. S., & Villa, R. A. (2007). Collaborative teaching: Critique of the scientific evidence. In L. Florian (Ed.), Handbook of special education research (pp. 417-428). London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications

Odeh, Z., Kurt, M., & Atamtürk. N. (2010, October 20). Reflective Practice and Its Role in Stimulating Personal and Professional Growth. Paper presented at the First National Conference on Improving TEFL Methods and Practices at Palestinian university, Palestine.

Pierre, Y. (2018). Academic Risk-Taking in Higher Education. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1428&context=sferc

Power, A. (2010). Community engagement as authentic learning with reflection. Issues in Educational Research, 20(1), 57–63.

Prisoners’ Education Trust (2018, May 30). UCAS bans the box, promoting fair chances in higher education. Retrieved from https://www.prisonerseducation.org.uk/media-press/ucas-bans-the-box

Prison Reform Trust (2017, June 5). Prison: The facts: Bromley briefings Summer 2017[Online report]. Retrieved from http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/portals/0/documents/bromley%20briefings/summer%202017%20factfile.pdf

Reckson, L. V. (2014). The weather in Hemingway. Teaching and Learning Together in Higher Education, 1(11). Retrieved from https://repository.brynmawr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1093&context=tlthe

Robinson, L. E., & Bell, A. (2012). Exploring adult risk propensity and academic risk-taking within the online learning environment. Proceedings of the Adult Education Research Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA. Retrieved from https://newprairiepress.org/aerc/2012/papers/37/

Rooijen, M. (2018). Balancing Risk and Innovation in Higher Education. Available on-line at: https://evolllution.com/managing-institution/higher_ed_business/balancing-risk-and-innovation-in-higher-education/

Rubin, C., Martinez, L., Chu, J., Hacker, K., Brugge, Doug., Pirie, A., Allukian, N., Rodday, A., and Leslie, L. (2012). Community-engaged pedagogy: A strengths-based approach to involving diverse stakeholders in research partnerships. Community Health Partnerships, 6(4), 481-490. https://doi.org/10.1353/cpr.2012.0057

Ruby, J. (1980). Exposing yourself: Reflexivity, anthropology and film. Semiotica, 30(1-2), 153-179

Runell, L. (2015). Identifying desistance pathways in a higher education programme for formerly incarcerated individuals. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 1–25.

Shields, P. (2003). The community of inquiry: Classical pragmatism and public administration. Administration and Society, 35(5), 510-538.

Strayhorn, T., L. (2012). College student’s sense of belonging: A key to educational success for all students. New York, NY: Routledge

Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publication.

The Centre for Social Justice (2017, September). Social Justice in the digital age [Online report]. Retrieved from https://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/core/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/CSJ_Digial_inclusion.pdf

The University of Edinburgh (2018). What is Widening Participation? [Policy brief] Retrieved from https://www.ed.ac.uk/student-recruitment/widening-participation/about/what

Unlock (2018). University and College Admissions [Online Policy Issue Brief]. Retrieved from http://www.unlock.org.uk/policy-issues/specific-policy-issues/university-admissions/

Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S., & Nevin, A. I. (2008). A guide to co-teaching: Practical tips for facilitating student learning (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Wagner, S., Pate, M., Turmel, S., & Burke, J. (2018). What motivates todays criminal justice student to become an engaged learner? Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 29(1). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10511253.2017.1336247

Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G., L. (2007). A question of belonging: Race, social fit and achievement. A Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 82–96.

Wallace, D. (2007). Knowledge management: Historical and cross-disciplinary themes. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited

Weale, S. (2018, May 29). Ucas drops need for university applications to declare convictions. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2018/may/29/ucas-drops-need-for-university-applicants-to-declare-convictions

Wenger-Trayner, E., & Wenger-Trayner, B. (2015). Introduction to communities of practice: A brief overview of the concept and its uses. Retrieved from www.wenger-trayner.com/introduction-to-communities-of-practice/

Wells, K. (1995). The strategy of grounded theory: Possibilities and problems. Social Work Research, 19(1), 33–37.

Share

COinS