The papers presented by Johnson, Saunders, and Lovano-Kerr are varied in content, but united in the sense of originating within two linked dilemmas. The first dilemma asks whether art educators are to embrace and actively work towards incorporating one currently popular political stance into the education process, or whether we are to devise, as far as we can, a curriculum formed from a synthesis of positions. The second asked whether, in using words like “enculturation” and “social transmission," we mean "to the world of the school,” or “to the world at large." These are well-worn dilemmas. Their continuing presence is evidence of past failure to address them successfully, and of their persistence as matters frustrating to the field.


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