6-Hydroxyflavone and Derivatives Exhibit Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity among Mono-, Di- and Polyhydroxylated Flavones in Kidney Mesangial Cells
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Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4′,6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment.
Copyright: © 2015 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
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Viability of mesangial cells upon treatment with Group one flavones by MTT assay.
S2_Table.pdf (151 kB)
Viability of mesangial cells upon treatment with Group two and three flavones by MTT assay.
S3_Table.pdf (148 kB)
Viability of mesangial cells upon treatment with Group four and five flavones by MTT assay.
Originally published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116409