Document Type

Research Report

Original Publication Date


Date of Submission

August 2017


This brief is part of larger regional study of racial equity in discipline policies and practices conducted by Virginia Commonwealth University’s Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC). The goal of the broader project is to: (1) analyze racial disproportionality in discipline across the Richmond area, (2) explore various interventions designed to ameliorate disproportionality, and (3) provide recommendations that inform policymaking and practice in the Richmond region. This is the first of two research briefs on racially inequitable school discipline. The subsequent brief will examine the history and theory of action behind different discipline models or interventions, as well as evidence of their impact on racial disproportionality. At the end of this brief, five of the key research studies on this topic are summarized.

Is Part Of

VCU MERC Publications

Recommended Citation

Tefera, A., Siegel-Hawley, G., & Levy, R. (2017). Why do racial disparities in school discipline exist? The role of policies, processes, people, and places. Richmond, VA. Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium.