Document Type

Research Report

Original Publication Date


Date of Submission

June 2016


Assessment is becoming increasingly important in classrooms as school systems respond to federal and state testing mandates. The increasing emphasis on assessment surely impacts student outcomes such as engagement and motivation, and ultimately achievement. While it is clear that classroom assessment is receiving more attention as a critical component of teaching that directly affects student learning, there is still a lack of systematic research that addresses many classroom assessment issues. There is some evidence that effective formative assessment enhances achievement (Black & Williams 1998), and that certain grading practices result in greater student motivation and achievement (Brookhart, 2004b). However, researchers have not sufficiently investigated how classroom assessment and grading practices should be categorized, and have not demonstrated strong relationships between these practices and student self-efficacy and motivation at different grade levels.

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