Document Type

Research Report

Original Publication Date


Date of Submission

June 2016


Increasing pressure on teachers and administrators due to high-stakes testing has led to increased risk to our most vulnerable population, those students who arrive at school without the prerequisite skills necessary to successfully participate in the academic climate of the classroom. Unfortunately, given the large range of ability levels often present even in early elementary school, teachers face enormous challenges in meeting the needs of all their students. Further, due to the challenges inherent in teaching low-achieving students, and the ensuing classroom behavior problems often presented by these students, teachers may be conditioned to avoid interacting with these students, particularly during academic instruction. Accumulated over time this differential treatment adds another risk factor that may contribute to students’ negative developmental outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on academic interventions for low achieving elementary students that might serve to remedy early learning problems in the classroom, thereby setting the stage for improved academic and social competence manifested by desired teacher and peer relationships predictive of school success.

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VCU MERC Publications

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Education Commons