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This literature review focuses on the application of technology (primarily the computer) to education. It is organized to present background information to familiarize the reader with basic issues relevant to teaching with technology, the restructuring of American Schools, and the performance one could expect from the infusion of technology into schools and classrooms. Furthermore, it summarizes findings regarding access and equity, in-service and pre-service education, and funding and facilities.
After a decade of enthusiasm, there still is no single compelling vision driving the infusion of technology into the schools; four have been projected.
1. The Social Rationale. Policy makers want to be sure that all children are "aware and unafraid of how computers work." They should be prepared to understand computers and be aware of their role in society because computers are pervasive in industrialized countries.
2. The Vocational Rationale. There will be employment opportunities for individuals who have the proper computer skills. Therefore, it's an important competency to develop.
3. The pedagogic rationale. Students can learn from computers. There are advantages over other traditional methods using computers to learn.
4. The Catalytic Rationale. Computers are catalysts to change schools for the better. They can facilitate change. They are symbols of progress. They encourage learning (Hawkridge, 1990).
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