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The metabolic changes that accompany changes in Cardiopulmonary testing (CPET) and heart failure biomarkers (HFbio) are not well known. We undertook metabolomic and lipidomic phenotyping of a cohort of heart failure (HF) patients and utilized Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) to identify associations to CPET and HFBio test performance (peak oxygen consumption (Peak VO2), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), exercise duration, and minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production slope (VE/VCO2 slope), as well as the established HF biomarkers of inflammation C-reactive protein (CRP), beta-galactoside-binding protein (galectin-3), and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)). A cohort of 49 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, predominantly males African American, presenting a high frequency of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were used in the study. MRA revealed that metabolic models for VE/VCO2 and Peak VO2 were the most fitted models, and the highest predictors’ coefficients were from Acylcarnitine C18:2, palmitic acid, citric acid, asparagine, and 3-hydroxybutiric acid. Metabolic Pathway Analysis (MetPA) used predictors to identify the most relevant metabolic pathways associated to the study, aminoacyl-tRNA and amino acid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, sphingolipid and glycerolipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Metabolite Set Enrichment Analysis (MSEA) found associations of our findings with pre-existing biological knowledge from studies of human plasma metabolism as brain dysfunction and enzyme deficiencies associated with lactic acidosis. Our results indicate a profile of oxidative stress, lactic acidosis, and metabolic syndrome coupled with mitochondria dysfunction in patients with HF tests poor performance. The insights resulting from this study coincides with what has previously been discussed in existing literature thereby supporting the validity of our findings while at the same time characterizing the metabolic underpinning of CPET and HFBio.
© 2019 Contaifer Jr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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VCU Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science Publications