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This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary bladder was also markedly reduced. Treatment of the cystitis animals with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced cystitis-induced bladder wall thickening and enlarged the intravesical volumes. To confirm the MRI results, we performed H&E stain postmortem and examined the levels of type I collagen by real-time PCR and western blot. Inhibition of the PI3K in vivo reduced the levels of type I collagen mRNA and protein in the urinary bladder ultimately attenuating cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy. The bladder mass calculated according to MRI data was consistent to the bladder weight measured ex vivo under each drug treatment. MRI results also showed that the urinary bladder from animals with cystitis demonstrated high magnetic signal intensity indicating considerable inflammation of the urinary bladder when compared to normal animals. This was confirmed by examination of the pro-inflammatory factors showing that interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α levels in the urinary bladder were increased with cystitis. Our results suggest that MRI can be a useful technique in tracing bladder anatomy and examining bladder hypertrophy in vivo during disease development and the PI3K pathway has a critical role in regulating bladder hypertrophy during cystitis.
Qiao, Z., Xia, C., & Shen, S., et al. Suppression of the PI3K Pathway In Vivo Reduces Cystitis-Induced Bladder Hypertrophy and Restores Bladder Capacity Examined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PLoS ONE, 9, e0114536. Copyright © 2014 Qiao et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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VCU Physiology and Biophysics Publications