Document Type


Original Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Clinical Psychology

DOI of Original Publication



This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Lin, Y., Worthington, E. L., Griffin, B. J., Greer, C. L., Opare-Henaku, A., Lavelock, C. R., Hook, J. N., Ho, M. Y. and Muller, H. (2014), Efficacy of REACH Forgiveness Across Cultures. J. Clin. Psychol., 70: 781–793, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for selfarchiving.

A portion of this research was funded by a grant to the second author from the Fetzer Institute.

Date of Submission

February 2018


Across cultures, most people agree that forgiveness is a virtue. However, culture may influence how willing one should be to forgive and how one might express forgiveness. At a university in the United States, we recruited both foreign-extraction students and domestic students (N = 102) to participate in a six-hour REACH Forgiveness intervention. We investigated the efficacy of the intervention overall as well as whether foreign-extraction and domestic students responded differently to treatment. Forgiveness was assessed using two measures—decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. The six-hour REACH Forgiveness intervention improved participants’ ratings of emotional forgiveness, but not decisional forgiveness, regardless of their culture. Thus, the REACH Forgiveness intervention appears equally efficacious for participants from different cultural backgrounds when conducted in the United States with college students.


© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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