Document Type


Original Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Clinical Psychology

DOI of Original Publication



This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Harper, Q., Worthington, E. L., Griffin, B. J., Lavelock, C. R., Hook, J. N., Vrana, S. R. and Greer, C. L. (2014), Efficacy of a Workbook to Promote Forgiveness: A Randomized Controlled Trial With University Students. J. Clin. Psychol., 70: 1158–1169, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.

We acknowledge support from the Fetzer Institute for two grants to Worthington that supported portions of this project.

Date of Submission

February 2018



The present study investigated the efficacy of a 6-hour self-directed workbook adapted from the REACH Forgiveness intervention.


Undergraduates (N = 41) were randomly assigned to either an immediate treatment or waitlist control condition. Participants were assessed across 3 time periods using a variety of forgiveness outcome measures.


The 6-hour workbook intervention increased forgiveness, as indicated by positive changes in participants’ forgiveness ratings that differed by condition. In addition, benchmarking analysis showed that the self-directed workbook intervention is at least as efficacious as the delivery of the REACH Forgiveness model via group therapy.


A self-directed workbook intervention adapted from the REACH Forgiveness intervention provides an adjunct to traditional psychotherapy that could assist the mental health community to manage the burden of unforgiveness among victims of interpersonal harm.

Is Part Of

VCU Psychology Publications

Included in

Psychology Commons