Document Type


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Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics





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Originally published at

Funded in part by the VCU Libraries Open Access Publishing Fund.

Date of Submission

September 2019


Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the intra‐fractional patient motion using the ExacTrac system in LINAC‐based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Method: A retrospective analysis of 104 SRS patients with kilovoltage image‐guided setup (Brainlab ExacTrac) data was performed. Each patient was imaged pre‐treatment, and at two time points during treatment (1st and 2nd mid‐treatment), and bony anatomy of the skull was used to establish setup error at each time point. The datasets included the translational and rotational setup error, as well as the time period between image acquisitions. After each image acquisition, the patient was repositioned using the calculated shift to correct the setup error. Only translational errors were corrected due to the absence of a 6D treatment table. Setup time and directional shift values were analyzed to determine correlation between shift magnitudes as well as time between acquisitions.

Results: The average magnitude translation was 0.64 ± 0.59 mm, 0.79 ± 0.45 mm, and 0.65 ± 0.35 mm for the pre‐treatment, 1st mid‐treatment, and 2nd mid‐treatment imaging time points. The average time from pre‐treatment image acquisition to 1st mid‐treatment image acquisition was 7.98 ± 0.45 min, from 1st to 2nd mid‐treatment image was 4.87 ± 1.96 min. The greatest translation was 3.64 mm, occurring in the pre‐treatment image. No patient had a 1st or 2nd mid‐treatment image with greater than 2 mm magnitude shifts.

Conclusion: There was no correlation between patient motion over time, in direction or magnitude, and duration of treatment. The imaging frequency could be reduced to decrease imaging dose and treatment time without significant changes in patient position.


© 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Is Part Of

VCU Radiation Oncology Publications