Document Type


Original Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

Review of Educational Research







Please note per publisher open access policies, this is the accepted version, not the published version, of the manuscript.

Date of Submission

January 2023


When their teachers are well equipped to foster inclusive and equitable classrooms, students from marginalized communities show higher rates of academic achievement, motivation, self-confidence, and self-efficacy. However, many teachers complete preparation programs feeling underprepared to work in culturally diverse classrooms, making high-quality professional development in this area crucial. We undertook a meta-ethnographic, systematic literature review of 40 studies of multicultural-education-focused professional development programs in order to better understand the forms and features of such programs that contribute to teachers’ self-efficacy and success in working with culturally diverse students. We found a small literature base with too much variation across types of programs studied and outcomes analyzed to draw conclusions about the factors that contribute to effectiveness. However, the extant literature does point to important questions and considerations for both providers and researchers of multicultural education professional development. One area for future research is how PD providers navigate tensions or challenges arising from resistance to discussions of diversity and equity. Another is locating the balance between providing specific knowledge about students’ cultures and guarding against promoting stereotypes or broad generalizations. Researchers and PD developers should also pay close attention to their underlying theories related to both teacher learning and multicultural education.


© 2019 AERA

Recommended Citation

Parkhouse, H., Lu, C. Y., & Massaro, V. R. (2019). Multicultural education professional development: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 89(3), 416-458.

Is Part Of

VCU Dept. of Teaching and Learning Publications