Document Type


Original Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

The New England Journal of Medicine



DOI of Original Publication



Originally Published at

Date of Submission

January 2015


We conducted a prospective epidemiologic study of ventriculostomy-related infections (ventriculitis or meningitis) in 172 consecutive neurosurgical patients over a two-year period to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of the infections. Ventriculitis or meningitis developed in 19 of 172 patients (11 per cent) undergoing a total of 213 ventriculostomies. When data from all these cases plus five cases of nonventriculostomy-related infection were combined, cerebrospinal-fluid pleocytosis was more significantly associated with the diagnosis of ventriculitis or meningitis (P<0.0001) than were fever and leukocytosis (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ventriculostomy-related infections included intracerebral hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage (P = 0.027), neurosurgical operations (P = 0.016), intracranial pressure of 20 mm Hg or more (P = 0.019), ventricular catheterization for more than five days (P = 0.017), and irrigation of the system (P = 0.021). Previous ventriculostomy did not increase the risk of infection with subsequent procedures. We conclude that ventriculostomy-related infections may be prevented by maintenance of a closed drainage system and by early removal of the ventricular catheter. If monitoring is required for more than five days, the catheter should be removed and inserted at a different site. (N Engl J Med 1984; 310:553–9.)


From The New England Journal of Medicine, Mayhall, C. G., Archer, N. H., Lamb, V. A. et al., Ventriculostomy-Related Infections, Vol. 310, Page 553, Copyright © 1984 Massachusetts Medical Society. Reprinted with permission.

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VCU Medical Center Publications