Original Publication Date
Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705-1865
Date of Submission
Analyzes the history of enslaved African Americans' relationship with the criminal courts of Virginia during a 160 year period.
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Schwarz, Philip. "Preface, Introduction, and Chapter 1: The Shape of the Shackles." In Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705-1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988, Available from VCU Scholars Compass, http://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/hist_pubs/1.