Author ORCID Identifier

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Kristina B. Hood

Second Advisor

Eric Benotsch

Third Advisor

Jamie Cage

Fourth Advisor

Fantasy Lozada

Fifth Advisor

Chelsea Williams


Black emerging adult women experience gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one’s race, gender, and age). Yet, to date, no measurement has explicitly captured these experiences. The study’s purpose is to aid the future development of a gendered racial microaggression measurement for Black emerging adult women based on the intersectionality theory (i.e., race, gender, and age) and Lewis’ model of gendered racial microaggressions. Utilizing a phenomenological approach, the present study took an important step in scale development. Data from six focus group interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis’ techniques. Data yielded three core themes and eight subthemes. These were (1) Stereotypical Expectations (Defensive Black Woman, Expectations of Strength and Independence, and Expectations of Care and Nurturing); (2) Assumptions of Aesthetics and Objectification (Hairism, Colorism, and Fetishized as Exotic); and (3) Feeling Silenced and Marginalized (Ascriptions of Intelligence and Expectation of Submissiveness). These findings are important as they add to existing gendered racial microaggression research by highlighting the role age plays on one’s experiences with gendered racism, as well as the presentation of historical stereotypes and expectations of Black womanhood. Study limitations and future work are discussed.


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Available for download on Monday, December 13, 2027

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