San Bernardino, reentry, criminology, 211 call center


Numerous scholars have noted that the majority of prisoners will be reincarcerated within three years of their release. However, while there has been extensive research on recidivism, much less attention has been paid to the reentry process in the sociological and criminological literature. Given the high rates of former prisoners reentering society with struggles that may affect their friends, family members, and communities, policymakers and practitioners should understand the successful methods for their reintegration. In this paper, we explore the conduits and barriers to reentry for a sample of San Bernardino county callers using United Way’s 211 Reentry Call Center from 2014-2015. We find that human needs resources (i.e. housing, clothes, and food assistance) and legal assistance are the two most frequently requested services. The callers in our sample have intersecting, disadvantaged identities and require multiple services which suggests a need for collaboration across agencies.

Author Bio

Annika Yvette Anderson is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology where she teaches classes on deviant behavior, criminology, social psychology, race and ethnic relations. She is also the Director of Project Rebound, a campus-based reentry program that helps formerly incarcerated students prepare for, apply to, enroll in, and graduate with high-quality degrees from California State University, San Bernardino. She received her B.A. in Public Relations from Pennsylvania State University and her M.A. and Ph.D. in Sociology from Washington State University. Her research interests are in criminology, social stratification, sexuality, social psychology, race, and ethnic relations.

Noé J Nava is a graduate student of applied economics at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaing: Agricultural and Consumer Economics. Noé does research in the areas of development economics, environmental and resource economics, and labor economics: market accessibility; food security; land, forest and water management; farm workers and migration; education of the rural poor; and issues of inequality in developing and developed countries.

Patricia Cortez is pursuing a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, with a minor in Criminal Justice from California State University, San Bernardino, CA.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


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