San Bernardino, reentry, criminology, 211 call center
Numerous scholars have noted that the majority of prisoners will be reincarcerated within three years of their release. However, while there has been extensive research on recidivism, much less attention has been paid to the reentry process in the sociological and criminological literature. Given the high rates of former prisoners reentering society with struggles that may affect their friends, family members, and communities, policymakers and practitioners should understand the successful methods for their reintegration. In this paper, we explore the conduits and barriers to reentry for a sample of San Bernardino county callers using United Way’s 211 Reentry Call Center from 2014-2015. We find that human needs resources (i.e. housing, clothes, and food assistance) and legal assistance are the two most frequently requested services. The callers in our sample have intersecting, disadvantaged identities and require multiple services which suggests a need for collaboration across agencies.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Anderson, A. Y. (2015). The Impact of Socio-demographic Characteristics and Cognitive Transformation on Desistance from High Risk Behaviors (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://research.wsulibs.wsu.edu:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2376/6186/Anderson_wsu_0251E_11490.pdf?isAllowed=y&sequence=1.
Bahr, S. J., Harris, L., Fisher, J. K., & Harker, A. A. (2010). Successful Reentry: What Differentiates Successful and Unsuccessful Parolees? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 54(5), 667-692. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X09342435
Bales, W., & Mears, D. (2008). Inmate Social Ties and the Transition to Society. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45(3), 287-321. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427808317574
Bellair, P., & Kowalski, B. (2011). Low-Skill Employment Opportunity and African American-White Difference in Recidivism. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(2), 176-208.doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427810391536
Berg, M. T., & Huebner, B.M. (2011). Reentry and the Ties that Bind: An Examination of Social Ties, Employment, and Recidivism. Justice Quarterly, , 28(2), 382-401. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2010.498383
Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, Shame and Reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804618
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=4986.
CMAP Strategy Report. (2008). An Overview of 211 Services In the Nation. Retrieved from http://www.cmap.illinois.gov/documents/10180/199018/211+Strategy+Research+Report. pdf/8eb875d8-7df5-46c3-94ee-c6c274103960.
Community Indicators Report. (2015). 2015 San Bernardino County Community Indicators Report. Retrieved from http://cms.sbcounty.gov/Portals/21/Resources%20Documents/CIR_2015_Report.pdf.
Duwe, G. (2012). Evaluating the Minnesota Comprehensive Offender Reentry Plan (MCORP): Results from a Randomized Experiment. Justice Quarterly 29(3), 347-383. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2011.555414
Duwe, G. (2015). The Benefits of Keeping Idle Hands Busy: An Outcome Evaluation of a Prisoner Reentry Employment Program. Crime & Delinquency, 6(4), 559-586. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128711421653
Freudenberg, N., Daniels, J., Crum, M., Perkins, T., & Richie, B.E. (2005). Coming Home From Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women, Male Adolescents, and Their Families and Communities. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1725-1736. doi: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.056325
Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, Crime, and Desistance: Toward a Theory of Cognitive Transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 990-1064.
Hannon, L., & DeFina, R. (2010). The State of the Economy and the Relationship Between Prisoner Reentry and Crime. Social Problems, 57(4), 611-29.doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2010.57.4.611
Hipp, J. R., Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (2010). Parole Recidivism in California: The Effect of Neighborhood Context and Social Service Agency Characteristics. Criminology, 48(1), 947-979. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00209.x
Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E.A. (2006). Predicting who Reoffends: the Neglected Role of Neighborhood Context in Recidivism Studies. Criminology, 44(1), 165-197. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00046.x
Lofstrom, M., Raphael, S., Grattet, R. (2014). Is public safety realignment reducing recidivism in California? San Francisco, CA: Public Policy Institute of California. Retrieved from https://gspp.berkeley.edu/assets/uploads/research/pdf/p80.pdf
Lutze, F. E., Rosky, J. W., & Hamilton, Z. K. (2014). Homelessness and Reentry: A Multisite Outcome Evaluation of Washington State’s Reentry Housing Program for High Risk Offenders. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 41(4), 471-491. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854813510164
Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2001). Prisoner Reentry in Perspective (Crime Policy Report,Volume 3). Urban Institute Justice Policy Center. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=630B49ECD5A27939FE4436EBB8B2D89A?doi=10.1.1.507.2088&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Madden, G. (2016). Special Trends Report. Retrieved from https://211sb.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Special-Trends-Report-July-2016.pdf.
Marbley, A. F., & Ferguson, R. (2005). Responding to Prisoner Reentry, Recidivism, and Incarceration of Inmates of Color: A Call to the Communities. Journal of Black Studies, 35(5), 633–649. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934704270254
Marlow, E., White, M.C., & Chesla, C.A. (2010). Barriers and Facilitators: Parolees’ Perceptions of Community Health Care. Journal of Correctional Health, 16(1), 17-26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345809348201
McDonald, D. (2014). The Role of Intensive Case Management Services in Reentry: The Northern Kentucky Female Offender Reentry Project. Women & Criminal Justice, 24(3), 229-251. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08974454.2014.909759
Mears, D. P., Wang, X., Hay, C., & Bales, W. D. (2008). Social Ecology and Recidivism: Implications for Prisoner Reentry. Criminology, 46(2), 301-340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00111.x
Morenoff, J. D., & Harding, D. J. (2014). Incarceration, Prisoner Reentry, and Communities. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 411-429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145511
Mumola, C. J., & Karberg, J. C. (2006). Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004 (Special Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Mukamal, D., Silbert, R., & Taylor, R. M. (2015). Degrees of Freedom: Expanding College Opportunities for Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Californians. Stanford Criminal Justice Center, February 2015. Retrieved from https://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/DegreesofFreedom2015_FullReport.pdf.
OPEC Staff. (2016). California’s return-to-prison rate falls for the 5th straight year to 44.6 percent. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation News. Retrieved from http://www.insidecdcr.ca.gov/2016/08/californias-return-to-prison-rate-falls-for-the-5th-straight-year-to-44-6-percent/.
Philips, L. A., & Spencer, M. W. (2013). The Challenges of Reentry from Prison to Society. Journal of Current Issues in Crime, Law and Law Enforcement, 6(2), 123-133.
Salem, B. E., Nyamathi, A., Idemundia, F., Slaughter, R., & Ames, M. (2013). At a crossroads: reentry challenges and healthcare needs among homeless female ex-offenders. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 9(1), 14-22. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/JFN.0b013e31827a1e9d
Schram, P. J., Koons-Witt, B.A., Williams, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (2006). Supervision Strategies and Approaches for Female Parolees: Examining the Link between Unmet Needs and Parolee Outcome. Crime & Delinquency, 52(3), 450-471. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128705281845
Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas:A Study of Rates of Delinquency in Relation to Differential Characteristics of Local Communities in American Cities. Chicago, Ill: The University of Chicago Press.
Stark, R. (1987). Deviant Places: A Theory of the Ecology of Crime. Criminology, 25(4), 893- 910. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00824.x
Spjeldnes, S., & Goodkind, S. (2009). Gender Differences and Offender Reentry: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 48(4), 314-335. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10509670902850812
Sung, H. (2011). From Diversion to Reentry: Recidivism Risks among Graduates of an Alternative to Incarceration Program. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 22(2), 219-234. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0887403410376588
Strategic Plan: The San Bernardino County Reentry Collaborative (SBCRC). (2012). Retrieved from http://cms.sbcounty.gov/Portals/42/Resources/Other/SBCRC%20Strategic%20Plan.pdf.
Travis, J., Western, B., & Redburn S. (2014). The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Travis, J., Crayton, A., & Mukamal, D. A. (2009). New Era in Inmate Reentry. Retrieved from http://johnjay.jjay.cuny.edu/files/web_images/president/A_New_Era_in Inmate_Reentry.pdf.
Trimbur, L. (2009). Me and the Law is Not Friends: How Former Prisoners Make Sense of Reentry. Qualitative Sociology, 32(3), 259–277.doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-009-9134-4
211 San Bernardino. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.211sb.org/about.
Ulloa, J. (2017, March 24). Officials Unveil Controversial Guidelines for the Release of More Inmates to Relieve Prison Overcrowding. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/politics/la-pol-sac-proposition-57-regulations-20170324-story.html.
Vera Institute of Justice. (2015). Incarceration Trends. Retrieved from http://trends.vera.org/rates/san-bernardino-county-ca?incarcerationSource=all.
Visher, C. A., & Travis, J. (2003). Transitions from Prison to Community: Understanding Individual Pathways.. Annual Review of Sociology, 29(1), 89-113. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.095931
Wakefield, S., & Uggen, C. (2010). Incarceration and Stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 36(1), 387-406. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102551
Wikoff, N., Linhorst, D. M., & Morani, N. (2012). Recidivism among Participants of a Reentry Program for Prisoners Released without Supervision. Social Work Research, 36(4), 289-299. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/svs021
Wright, B. J., Zhang, S. X., Farabee D., & Braatz, R. (2014). Prisoner Reentry Research 2000 to 2010: Results of a Narrative Review. Criminal Justice Review, 39(1), 37-57. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734016813501192
Zhang, S., Roberts, R., & Callanan, V. (2006). Preventing Parolees From Retuing to Prison Through Community-Based Reintegration. Crime & Delinquency, 52(4), 551-571. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128705282594